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25th  Anniversary of  Practical Homicide Investigation®

Practical Homicide Investigation:  Tactics,
Procedures, and Forensic Techniques, 4th Edition

Author: Vernon J. Geberth, M.S., M.P.S., B.B.A., FBINA
Lieutenant Commander (Retired), New York City Police Department


"Remember:  Do it right the first time. You only get one chance."
  -- Vernon J. Geberth, 1980

Renowned for being THE definitive source of homicide investigation, Practical Homicide Investigation: Tactics, Procedures, and Forensic Techniques is the recognized protocol used by investigative divisions of major police departments throughout the world. It is also the text used in most police academies, including the prestigious FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. It emphasizes essential procedures, combines detailed techniques with instructive case studies, and outlines the foundation on which to build a solid, prosecutable case.

The fundamental criminal investigative techniques stressed in the Fourth Edition are crucial for effective inquiry into sudden and violent death. Eminent author, lecturer, consultant, and expert witness Vernon J. Geberth begins the book with a comprehensive discussion of homicide crimes scenes. The book evolves chronologically from initial police notification, the correct police response that follows, and the subsequent steps necessary to conduct an intelligent investigation. It then delves into more technical aspects of homicide investigation, augmented with numerous pictures and full-color illustrations that involve pertinent case histories.

The book features two new chapters along with major revisions of those from the previous editions. In addition it contains 675 photos and illustrations - including 300 new entries that incorporate depictions of wound structures and procedures that portray exactly what to do and how to do it. All illustrations are presented in full color, including new medical-legal drawings for instruction and courtroom testimony.

All illustrations are presented in full color, including new medical-legal drawings for instruction and courtroom testimony.

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What's New in the 4th Edition

  • Introduces a completely new chapter on the latest DNA technology.
  • Introduces a completely new chapter on Equivocal Death Investigations.
  • Includes new murder cases for reference and review.
  • Contains a revised Homicide Investigator's Checklist.
  • Provides a revised chapter on Profiling and Investigative Assessment.
  • Provides an updated bibliography and listing of additional reference sources.
  • An updated and expanded Glossary of Terms.
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  • Homicide Investigators
  • Law enforcement professionals
  • Crime scene investigators
  • Medical Investigators
  • Police academies
  • Medical examiners
  • Coroners
  • Prosecutors
  • Forensic psychiatrists
  • Criminal psychologists
  • Students of criminalistics
  • Lawyers
Practical Homicide Investigation: Tactics, Procedures and Forensic Techniques, Fourth Edition is the flagship book in a series of professional texts within the Practical Aspect of Criminal and Forensic Investigations Series, which Vernon Geberth developed to provide investigators with specific resources, written by expert practitioners, which would promote and facilitate investigations.

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Publication and Pricing

For bulk orders, call P.H.I. Distribution at (845) 429-0205
Multiple copies of The Book or the Field Guide are available at a special discounted price for law enforcement personnel.

Purchase directly from CRC Press and save 10% using Promo Code 143KA121Z checkout

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Textbook Contents
Table of Contents
The Homicide Crime Scene
The Five Components of Practical Homicide Investigation
The Crime Scene
At the Crime Scene
The Homicide Investigation Starts at the Crime Scene Determining the Dimensions of the Homicide Crime Scene Protecting the Crime Scene
The Homicide Crime Scene Sign-In Sheet
The Preliminary Investigation at the Primary Crime Scene Victimology
Equivocal Death Investigations
The Staged Crime Scene
Types of Crime Scene Staging
Example of Homicide Made to Appear an Accident
Example of a Homicide Made to Appear Sex Related Conclusion Investigative Strategies
Selected Reading

First Officer's Duties: General

Notification of a Possible Homicide: the Official Notification to the Police
First Notification of Homicide Received in Person by Patrol Officer
First Officer's Duties on Arrival at the Scene
Protection of Life
Safeguarding the Scene and Detaining Witnesses or Suspects
The First Officer Initiates the Homicide Investigation
Dealing with Emergencies at the Scene Conclusion
Selected Reading

First Officer's Duties: Specific

The Suspect in Custody
Transporting the Suspect
Examination of the Suspect for Evidence
The Dying Declaration
The Victim Removed to the Hospital
The Victim Pronounced DOA at the Hospital
The Officer's Duties at the Hospital
The Victim Confirmed DOA at the Scene
Handling Witnesses at the Scene
Additional Officers at the Scene
Handling News Media Personnel at the Scene
The Documentation of Events by the First Officer
The Changing Sequence of Command
Patrol Officer's Checklist
Initial Call/Receipt of Information
Arrival at the Homicide Crime Scene
Protection of the Crime Scene
Preliminary Investigation
Suspect in Custody
Suicide and Accidental Death

The Preliminary Investigation at the Scene:
The Detectives
Initial Receipt of Information
Arrival at the Scene
Preliminary Steps to Be Taken by Detectives upon Arrival - Checklist
Describing the Scene
Implementing Crime Scene Procedures
Direction of Uniformed Personnel at the Scene
The Teamwork Approach
Directing the Investigation at the Scene
Duties of the Detective Supervisor on Arrival at the Scene Preliminary Interview of the First Officer
Interview of Ambulance Personnel
Handling Curious Onlookers
Handling Witnesses at the Scene
The Canvass
The Preliminary Medical Examination at the Scene
Special Procedure to Follow in Specific Cases
Case Examples Conclusion

Specific Investigative Duties at the Scene
The Suspect in Custody
Interview and Interrogation of the Suspect in Custody
Examination of a Suspect for Evidence
Evaluation of the Suspect's Demeanor and Mental Capacity Obtaining a Dying Declaration
Questions to Be Asked in a Dying Declaration
Documentation of the Dying Declaration
Handling Buried-Body Cases
The Discovery of the Buried Body
Initial Response
The Excavation
The Body
Search for a Buried Body
The Investigative Checklist
Documentation of the Initial Report
Initial Receipt of Information
Arrival at the Homicide - Death Scene
Preliminary Inspection of the Body at the Crime Scene Implement Crime Scene Control Procedures
Initiate a Crime Scene Log
Establish a Policy for Crime Scene Integrity
Establish a Command Post or Temporary Headquarters
Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and Ambulance Personnel Initiate a Canvass Weapons
The Suspect in Custody
Suspect in Custody: Interrogation at the Scene A.D.A.P.T. Crime Scene Photographs
Documentation of Crime Scene Photographs
Recommended Crime Scene Photographs
The Crime Scene Sketch
The Crime Scene Search
Dust for Fingerprints
Description of the Deceased
Preliminary Medical Examination at the Scene
Victim - Hospital Information
Evidence Process and Control Procedures
Release of the Homicide Crime Scene
Suicide Investigation - Investigative Considerations
Evaluation of the Wounds
Psychological State of the Victim
Any Prior Mental Disease or Defect
Recognized Warning Signs in Suicides
Extreme Danger Signs in Suicides
Autoerotic Fatalities (Accidental Asphyxia): Investigative Considerations
Investigating Fatal Fires
The Investigative Considerations
The Fire Incident
Suspicious Designation: General Determination Factors
Maintenance of the Fire Crime Scene
Investigation at the Scene
Determination of Arson
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Investigative Checklist
Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Warning Signs References
Selected Reading

The Crime Scene Photographs
The Value of Crime Scene Photographs
Crime Scene Photography and the Investigator
Admissibility of Photographic Evidence
Photographing the Homicide Crime Scene
Outdoor Locations
Indoor Locations
The Body Suspects
Type of Film
Recommended Crime Scene Photographs
Practical Application of Crime Scene Photography
The World Trade Center Attack
The Polaroid Macro 5 SLR Camera
The Panoscan MK-3 Digital Panoramic Camera System Examples Videotaping
Advantages of Videotaping
Purpose of Videotaping the Crime Scene
Recommended Procedure Videotape Protocol
Arrival at Scene
Taping Protocol
Videotaping Suspect Statements Conclusion
Selected Reading

The Crime Scene Sketch
The Sketch
Preparing the Crime Scene Sketch
Utilizing Aerial Photographs for Mapping Outdoor Crime Scenes
The "Total Station" Crime Scene Reconstruction Program
Definition Operation
Practical Application
Selected Reading

The Homicide Crime Scene Search
Legal Considerations
Warrantless Searches Where Suspect Shares Possessory Right to Premises
Practical Examples of Reasonableness: Officers Arriving at Scene of
Violent Crime
Physical Evidence
Types of Physical Evidence
The Concept of Linkage
Methods of Crime Scene Search
Formulating the Search
The Homicide Kit
Crime Scene Integrity Kit
Evidence Collection Tools
Fingerprint Kit
Photography Kit
Sketching and Mapping Kit
Casting Kit
Evidence Collection Containers
Lasers and Alternate Light Sources (ALS)
The Search
Examination of the Body at the Scene
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
Release of the Body
The Scene
Processing a Vehicle (See Chapter 17)
Examining the Outdoor Scene
Examples of Evidence Found Outdoors
Examination of an Outdoor Scene at Night
Physical Examination of a Suspect in Custody
Gunshot Residue Testing
Release of the Scene
Crime Scene Process Protective Equipment and Clothing
Antiputrefaction Masks
Crime Scene Protocol for Protection from Airborne Pathogens and Other Biohazards
Communicable Diseases
Required Precautions
Decontamination of Equipment
Decontamination of Clothing
Precautions Prevention
Exposure of First Responders
Exposure to Blood-Borne Diseases
Infection Control Techniques
Universal Precautions
Body Substance Isolation
Exposure Treatment
Selected Reading

Estimating Time of Death
The Process of Dying
Body Changes after Death
External Agents of Change Insects
Bodies in Water
Information Derived from the Scene
Selected Reading

The Identity of the Deceased
The Identification
Identification at the Scene
Personal Identification Clothing and Possessions
Identification by Photographs
Description of the Body
Jewelry and Watches
Obtaining Fingerprints from Dead Bodies
Mass Fatality Events
The World Trade Center Attack
Mass Fatality Considerations
DNA Testing in the Identification of WTC Victims
The Iceman Case
Dr. Zugibe's Medical Evaluation
Forensic Evaluation
The Teeth Age
General Facial Characteristics
Socioeconomic Group
Occupation or Habits
Positive Identification
Bite-Mark Identification
Inquiries Relative to Forensic Odontology
The Bones Age
Height and Other Individual Characteristics
Determination of Cause of Death
Determination of Whether Bones Are Human or Animal
Examination of Bones
Facial Reconstruction
Forensic Art
Introduction to Forensic Art
Four Categories of Forensic Art
Forensic Art in Identification of Human Remains
Postmortem Drawing
Two-Dimensional Facial Reconstruction from the Skull
Three-Dimensional Facial Reconstruction on the Skull
Methods of Superimposition Conclusion
Selected Reading

Death Notifications: The Surviving Family as Secondary Victims

Psychological Reactions to Death
The Normal Grieving Process
The Stages of Grief
Psychological Reactions to Murder
Psychological Reactions to Murdered Children
Psychological Reactions to the Murder of Police Officers
Notifications of Death by the Homicide Detective Recommendations and Guidelines for Proper Death Notifications to Surviving Family Members
Providing Information to the Surviving Family
Guiding the Surviving Family through the Criminal Justice System
Victim's Assistance Organizations
Selected Reading

Modes of Death
Gunshot Wounds
The Projectile Striking the Body
The Nature and Extent of Gunshot Wounds
Smudging or Smoke
Tattooing or Stippling Reentry
Shotgun Wounds
Contact Wounds
Bullet Track
Cutting Wounds
Stabbing Wounds
Blunt Force Injuries Lacerations
Chopping Wounds
Deaths by Asphyxia
Investigative Considerations Hanging Drowning
Inhalation of Poison Gases Suffocation
General Forms of Suffocation
Deaths by Fire
Severity of Burn Injuries
Investigative Considerations
Scalding Burns
Deaths Caused by Injection
Sexual Asphyxia: The Phenomenon of Autoerotic Fatalities Introduction
Preliminary Investigation at the Scene
Atypical Autoerotic Deaths
Asphyxial Deaths - The Pathology of Autoerotic Death
The Reality of Asphyxial Death - Videotaped Cases
Equivocal Death Investigations
Sexual Asphyxia - the Psychosexual Aspects of Autoerotic Activity
Female Victims of Autoerotic Fatality
Equivocal Death Investigation
Crime Scene
The Victim
Investigative Considerations Opinion
Notifying and Advising the Surviving Family of the Mode of Death
Investigative Considerations
Determining the Involvement of Sexual Asphyxia: Autoerotic Checklist
Selected Reading

Suicide Investigation
Risk Factors
Depression: A Clinical Perspective
Emotional Symptoms
Cognitive Symptoms
Motivational Symptoms
Somatic Symptoms
Clinical Scenario
Other Motives for Suicide
The Investigation
Staging a Scene
Investigative Considerations
The Weapon
Medicolegal Analysis
Bizarre Suicides
Suicide by Blasting Cap
Suicide by Fireplace
Attempted Suicide - Self-Mutilation
Barrel of Gun in Suicide Victim's Head
Equivocal Death Investigations
Motives and Intent
Suicide Notes
Background Information
Psychological Autopsy
Warning Signs
Extreme Danger Signs
Investigative Considerations
Evaluation of the Wounds
Psychological State of the Victim
Any Prior Mental Disease or Defect
Final Exit Suicide Investigations
Synopsis of
Investigative Considerations
Letters to Be Written
Police Investigation
Self-Deliverance via the Plastic Bag
Police Investigation
The Final Act
Police Investigation
Investigative Checklist for Final Exit Cases
Recommendations Conclusion
Staged Crime Scenes Involving Final Exit
Early Example
Clinical Interpretations
The Psychopathology of Suicide-by-Cop Scenarios
Hostage Situations
Psychological Ramifications for Police Officers Involved in Suicide-by-Cop Incidents
The Racial Component in Police-Related Shooting Incidents
Investigative Considerations
Selected Reading

The Investigation of Sex-Related Homicides

The Crime Scene Investigation
Sex-Related Crime Scene Checklist
Method for Diagnosing Abrasions, Lacerations, and Other Skin Disruptions in the Perineum and Perianal Areas
Human Sexuality and Sexual Deviance
Determining Motivation
Significance of Fantasy in Sex-Related Incidents
Organized and Disorganized Offenders
The Organized Offender
The Disorganized Offender
Interpersonal Violence-Oriented Disputes and Assaults
Rape- and/or Sodomy-Oriented Assault
Investigative Strategy
Categories of Rapists
Deviant-Oriented Assault - the Lust Murder
Anatomy of Lust Murder
The Serial Murder
The Serial Killer Profile
Organized Serial Killer Activities
Disorganized Serial Killer Activities
Serial Murder Investigation
Command Responsibilty
Linkage Blindnesss
Typical Serial Murder Task Force
The Typical Serial Killer
Three Main Methods Used to Link Murders
Investigative Considerations
A Clinical Perspective
Selected Reading

Homosexual Homicides
Homosexual Relationships
Homosexual Lifestyles - Investigative Considerations
Interpersonal Violence-Oriented Disputes and Assaults
Murders Involving Forced Anal Rape and/or Sodomy
Lust Murders and Other Acts of Sexual Perversion
Homosexual Serial Murders
Investigative Significance
Psychological Considerations
Robbery/Homicide of Homosexuals
Homophobic Assault and "Gay-Bashing" Incidents Conclusion References
Selected Reading

New!   Forensic Application of DNA Analysis
Deoxyribonucleic Acid - DNA.
The Cell
Molecular Biology of the Cell
Structure and Function of DNA
Nuclear DNA
Y-Chromosomal DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
Techniques and Procedures in Forensic DNA Analysis
Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence
Scheduling Analysis
DNA Extraction
Differential DNA Extraction
DNA Quantification
DNA Amplification (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
Multiplex PCR Analysis
STR Multiplex PCR Analysis
Amplification of mtDNA
DNA Detection and Analysis
STR DNA Analysis
mtDNA Analysis
STR DNA Databases
Population Statistics CODIS
National Missing Persons DNA Database
The Choice of Analysis
Admissibility of DNA Evidence
Laboratory Accreditation
Forensic DNA Case Studies
Victim Identification Conclusion References
Selected Reading

Collection of Evidence
Procedures for Collection of Evidence
General Types of Evidence
Classifications of Physical Evidence
Class Evidence
Individualistic Evidence
Collection of Specific Types of Evidence
Body Materials
Blood (Wet)
Blood Stains (Dry)
Field Test Reagents
Saliva or Spittle
Objects Bullets
Discharged Casings or Cartridges
Shotgun Shells
Live Cartridges or Rounds of Ammunition
Shotgun Wadding
Cigarette/Cigar Butts
Displaced Furniture
Tools Vehicles
Documents (Letters, Notes, Papers)
Fingerprint Examination
Protein Enhancement Reagents
Fatty Acid, Elements, and Compounds Enhancement Reagents Tire Tracks and Footprints
Tool Marks
Bite Marks
Bullet Holes
Newly Damaged Areas
Selected Reading

The Autopsy
The Medical Examiner/Coroner
Investigation of Death
Cause, Mechanism, and Manner of Death
Practical Application of Terminology
Purpose of the Autopsy
Investigative Information Provided by the Autopsy
The Medicolegal Autopsy
Examination of the Crime Scene
Identification of the Body
External Examination of the Body
Preliminary Procedure
The External Examination
Internal Examination of the Body
The Head
The Chest
The Abdomen
The Pelvic Cavity
The Protocol Summary
Human Anatomy
Directional Terms
Body Cavities
Dorsal Cavity
Ventral Cavity
The Skeletal System
The Heart
Selected Reading

The News Media in Homicide Investigations
Establishing a News Media Policy
Building a Relationship with the News Media
Homicide News Release Policy
Offering Rewards
Handling the News Media at the Scene
Preparing the News Release
Handling Questions During News Conferences
Selected Reading

Identification of Suspects
Bite-Mark Identification
The Bite Mark.
Collection of Bite-Mark Evidence at the Scene
Photographs of the Bite-Mark Wound
Saliva Washings
Interpretation of the Bite-Mark Evidence
Examination of the Bite Mark
What Is Hypnosis?
Value to the Investigator
Shortcomings of Hypnosis Summary
Latent Prints on Human Skin
General Considerations
Fingerprint from Human Skin Using the Magna-Brush Technique
Polygraph Examinations
The Examination
Possible Subjects for Polygraph Examinations
Subjects That Cannot Be Tested
Investigator's Duties prior to the Examination
Polygraph Procedures Summary
What Is Psycholinguistic Analysis? Methodology Psycholinguistics as an Investigative Tool
Utilizing Psycholinguistic Analysis
What Is a Psychic?
Police and Psychics Summary
Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP)
Munchausen Syndrome - History and Application
Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) - History and Application
The Investigative Response
Team Approach
Collection of Evidence
Interviewing the Munchausen Syndrome-Related Offender
Homicides Involving Theft of a Fetus
Infant Abductions - Infant Cut from Mother's Womb
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Case 4
Case 5
Case 6
Case 7
Attempted Theft of Fetus Offender Killed by Victim Mother Case 8
Investigative Assessment and Analysis
The Offender Profiles
Offender Motive
Investigative Strategies
Police Response
Detective Response
Additional Information Summary
Orders of Protection
Anti-Stalker Legislation
Types of Stalkers
The Psychopathic Personality Stalker
The Psychotic Personality Stalker
Erotomania Involving Obsessed Fans and Stalkers
Law Enforcement Response to Stalker Incidents
VICAP, Statewide and Regional Information Systems
The Violent Criminal Apprehension Program - VICAP
Profiling and Consultation Program
The Regional Organized Crime Information Center
Submission of Cases
The Homicide Investigation and Tracking System (HITS)
Selected Reading
Bite Mark Identification
Latent Prints on Human Skin
Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy
VI-CAP, State-Wide and Regional Information Systems

Investigative Assessment: Criminal Personality Profiling
History of Profiling
Application of Abnormal Psychology
Criminal Personality Profile
The Purpose of the Profile
When Profiling Can Be Productive
Factors That Can Be Determined by a Criminal Personality
The Investigative Approach to Profiling
Investigative Assessment - The Profiling Process
Clinical Considerations and Descriptions of Behavior
The Psychopathic Personality
Psychotic Personality (The Psychosis)
Sexual Sadism (302.84 DSM-IV)
Psychopathic Sexual Sadists
Crime Scene and Profile: Characteristics of Organized and Disorganized Murderers
The Organized Offender
General Behavior Characteristics
Overland Park Police Information
Missing Persons' Cases
Lenexa Police Investigation
Background Information
Investigative Information
Internet Information
Additional Information
Robinson, the "Slave Master" Vickie
Investigative Break
Second Investigative Break
Investigative Status in May 2001
Tactical Decision
The Arrest and Execution of Search Warrants
Search of the Kansas Storage Locker
The Linn County Search
Raymore, Missouri, Storage Unit
Sheila and Debbie Beverly
Task Force Investigation Revelations
Bizarre Twist in the Case Disposition
The Disorganized Offender
General Behavior Characteristics
Ted Bundy: Serial Killer - Offender Profile
Offender Profile Program Background
Investigative Analysis
Postcrime Behavior Conclusion
Additional Information on Ted Bundy
Investigative Considerations
Criminal Personality Profiling - The Signature Aspect in Criminal
Clinical Perspective
Investigative Perspective
Linkage Blindness
Investigative Application of the "Signature" Aspect
Signature Aspect
Signature Aspect
Signature Aspect
The Suspect
Signature Aspect of the Crimes
Practical Examples of Signature Activity21 Conclusion Geographic Profiling
Investigative Elements to Consider in Geographic Profiling
Investigative Elements in the Criminal Case Assessment Process Types of Crime Locations
Investigative Considerations
The Police Investigation
A Psychology of Evil
A Model for a Psychology of Evil Conclusion
Selected Reading

New!   Equivocal Death Investigation
Equivocal Death Investigations
Initiating the Investigation
Case Number 1: An Equivocal Death and Staged Crime Scene - Making a Homicide Appear to Be a Suicide Introduction
The Crime Scene
The Police Investigation
The Autopsy
Consultative Analysis
Investigative Considerations
Investigative Issues
Critique of Police Investigation
Forensic Pathologist Report
Evaluation of the Weapon and the Wound Structure
Response to Insurance Company Medical Expert Opinion
Case Number 2: An Equivocal Death Investigation with Staged Crime Scene
Death Classified as Undetermined Manner
The Initial Police Investigation
Initial Detective Investigation
Initial Medical Examiner Investigation
Autopsy Findings
The Follow-Up Medical Examiner Investigation
The Follow-Up Police Investigation
Investigative Assessment and Analysis
Initial Response
Review of the Police and Medical Examiner Investigators' Reports
The Ligature
Victimology Conclusion
Case Number 3: An Equivocal Death - Homicide or Suicide? Introduction
Case Facts
U.S. Army Autopsy Report Case# ME98-006
USACID Position
Second Medicolegal Examination Requested by Family
Investigative Assessment and Analysis
NYS Medicolegal Analysis Conducted for the National Guard
Preliminary Consultative Reports
USACID Follow-Up
Medical Significance of the Wound Structures
Review of Medicolegal Findings
Final Report
Conclusion Opinion
Case Number 4: Staged Crime Scene - Homicide or Suicide?
Selected Reading

Narcotic-Related Homicides

The Drug-Related Murder: The Investigative Dilemma
The Drug-Related Murder and the Investigative Reality
The Three-Phase Strategy
Phase 1 - The Homicide Crime Scene
Phase 2 - The Application of Drug Intelligence
Phase 3 - Crime Clearance Procedures

Practical Homicide Investigation: Supervision and Management of the Homicide Investigation
Management Policy
Police Department Policy
Criminal Investigation Management
Major Pitfalls to Practical Homicide Case Management
Procedures for Effective Management and Supervision of Homicide
Supervisor's Homicide Checklist
Supervising the Preliminary Investigation at the Scene
Directing Specific Investigative Duties
Supervising Homicide Crime Scene Search
Providing for the Effective Documentation of Events
Case Management
Note Keeping
Official Reports
First Day of Investigation
Indexing the Homicide Investigation
News Clipping File
Conducting the Investigative Conference
Investigation of Police-Related Shootings (OIS/Use of Deadly Force Incidents) Protocol1
I. Introduction
II. Assigning Investigative Responsibility
III. Investigation of OIS/Use of Deadly Force Incident
IV. Interview of Employees Involved
V. Taped Interview of Employees Involved
VI. Follow-Up Investigation
VII. Background Investigation
VIII. Preparation of Investigative Report
IX. Conclusion
Apprehension of Homicide Fugitives
Use of Wanted Posters
Distribution of Photographs and Information Flyers to Patrol
Cell Phones
Planning the Apprehension
Assessment of Physical Hazards
The Tactical Plan
The Tactical Operation
Notification to Central Communications by Land Line
Cold Case Investigations


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